EuCARD Editorial Series of Monographs
on Accelerator Science and Technology
EuCARD Series Volume list | Ordering a
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Information for Authors
The Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology was started in 2008 as a joint initiative of the EU FP6
project CARE and its successor, the EU FP7
The editorial series was included in EuCARD as an important, predicted achievement and contractual deliverable of the project.
The series includes, from assumption, all forms of the achievements of EuCARD, written preferably in a form of books and booklets, manuals, monographs and ‘polished’ technical reports. The series may also include related work to the current developments of accelerator science and technology, not being direct result of EuCARD but relevant to broadly understood EuCARD research subject area.
Vol.01 | Vol.02 | Vol.03 |
Vol.04 | Vol.05 | Vol.06 |
| Vol.08 | Vol.09 | Vol.10 |
Vol.11 | Vol.12 | Vol.13 | Vol.14 | Vol.15 | Vol.16| Vol.17 | Vol.18
Vol.01: Multi-cell Superconducting Structures for High Energy e+-e- Colliders and Free Electron Laser Linacs
Jacek Sekutowicz, 2008, 135 pages
The volume, which is the first in the editorial series on Accelerator Science, is closely combined with the most advanced particle accelerators – based on Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology. In general, SRF research includes following areas: high gradient cavities, cavity prototyping, thin film technologies, large grain and mono-crystalline niobium and niobium alloys, quenching effects in superconducting cavities, SRF injectors, photo-cathodes, beam dynamics, quality of electron beams, cryogenics, high power RF sources, low level RF, tuners, RF power coupling to cavities, RF test infrastructures, etc. The volume consists of the following chapters: Overview of e+-e- colliders; TESLA superconducting structure and alternative structures for ILC; Superconducting superstructures; Superconducting photo-injector.
Vol.02: TRIDAQ Detector Systems for High Energy Physics Experiments,
Krzysztof Poźniak, 2008, 161 pages
The volume is presenting the current development trends of electronics for the biggest accelerator experiments. The measurement, data readout and acquisition, control and monitoring systems are distributed, fast, multichannel, cover large area, work synchronously with the experiment clock, possess pipeline architecture, work in the adverse environments. The volume is a sort of a practical manual for engineers participating in the design, construction, commissioning and exploitation of such control-measurement systems. The volume consists of the following chapters: development of electronic systems for HEP experiments; design of TRIDAQ systems; examples of TRIDAQ systems solutions, HERA/ZEUS, LHC/CMS.
This volume is currently available in Polish but will be available in English
shortly, for more details, contact us.
Vol.03: Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future,
Zbigniew Szadkowski, 2009, 227 pages
The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra high energy cosmic rays (cosmic accelerators). The Auger-South has been completed in Argentina in 2008. The planned Auger-North in Colorado will supplement the latter one and together they will establish the most ever tool for charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set will provide the best evaluation of the primary particle composition. The detectors register extensive Air Showers initiated in the atmosphere by a single cosmic ray particle. The volume consists of the following chapters: Pierre Auger Observatory background; Second level trigger in PAO; First level trigger in PAO; New triggers for PA surface detector; PAO performance and preliminary results; Auger muons and infill for the ground array; Triggers for a detection of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers.
Vol.04: Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe, Summary of Project Achievements,
Roy Aleksan, Olivier Napoly (Editors), 2009, 130 pages
The main objective of the CARE project was to generate a structured and integrated European area in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. The framework of CARE has successfully integrated the subjects, the infrastructures and the expertise.
The volume consists of the following chapters: Overview of CARE Project; Electron Linear Accelerator Network in Europe (ELAN), Beams and European Neutrino Experiments (BENE); High-energy high-intensity hadron beams; R&D in SRF; Charge production with photo-injectors (PHIN); High-intensity pulsed photo-injector (HIPPI); Next European dipole (NED).
Vol.05: Some topics in beam dynamics of storage rings,
Helmut Mais, 2009, 132 pages
The volume reviews some beam dynamics problems in accelerator physics. Theoretical tools and methods are introduced and discussed. It is shown that these concepts can be applied to the study of various problems in storage rings. The first part treats Hamiltonian systems for proton accelerators. The second part is concerned with explicitly stochastic systems represented by electron storage rings. The volume consists of the following chapters: Hamiltonian dynamics; Qualitative and perturbation theory; Stochastic dynamics in storage rings; electron and proton storage rings; spin dynamics in storage rings.
Vol.06: An early separation scheme for the LHC luminosity upgrade,
Guido Sterbini, 2010, 169 pages
The volume addresses the goals and
requirements for the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It analyses the need for
the crossing angle and its impact on the peak luminosity of the collider. After
having introduced the Early Separation Scheme, it explains how it may overcome
some limitations of the present machine. All the potential improvement due to
the Early Separation Scheme are shown on the luminosity plane (peak luminosity
verses integrated luminosity). Linear and non-linear beam dynamics effects are
also discussed. The volume consists of the following chapters: The Concept of Early
Separation; Luminosity leveling and performance; The induced beam dynamics
effect; Simulations and experiments; The integration and the preliminary design.
Vol.07: Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating
fields in superconducting cavities,
Tomasz Czarski, 2010, 162 pages
The volume presents a digital control system for superconducting cavities of
a linear accelerator. FPGA based controller, managed by Matlab was developed to
investigate a novel firmware implementation. The system is considered for LLRF
application. Modeling of a cavity with signal and power analysis is considered
as a key approach to the control method. An electrical model is represented by
the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity
voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The
electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the
Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital
signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector
sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An
algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The
calibration procedure of a signal path is considered for a multi-channel
control. Identification of the system parameters is carried out by the least
squares method application. The FPGA based controller executes a procedure
according to the following prearranged control tables: Feed-Forward, Set-Point
and Gain. The volume consists of the following chapters: Cavity modeling; cavity
simulator design; criteria of cavity control; multi-cavity modeling and control;
multi-cavity complex controller.
Vol.08: Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems,
Paweł Gryboś, 2010, 187 pages
The volume is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end
electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely:
- designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and
X-ray imaging applications,
- designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors
used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing,
crosstalk reduction and good matching performance,
- optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation
The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the
above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues
related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting
mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure of this book is as follows:
- semiconductor detectors: detector materials, signal generation, detector segmentation, detector models;
- architecture of front end electronics: CSA, shaper, discriminator, noise optimizations, pulse shaping, fast signal processing;
- important aspects of multichannel integrated circuits: noise modeling, short channel effects, digital to analog crosstalk, random matching;
- radiation damage of integrated circuits: total dose effects, single event effects, radiation tolerant design;
- examples of multichannel counting integrated circuits: chips for strip detectors, solutions for pad and pixel detectors.
Vol.09. A Damped and Detuned
for the Main Linacs
of the Compact Linear Collider
V. Khan, 2011,
Linear colliders are an option for lepton collision at several TeV. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims at electron and positron collisions at a centre of mass energy of 3 TeV. In CLIC, the main accelerating structures are designed to operate at an X-band frequency of 12 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. Two significant issues in linear accelerators that can prevent high gradient being achieved are electrical breakdown and wakefields. The baseline design for the CLIC main linacs relies on a small aperture size to reduce the breakdown probability and a strong damping scheme to suppress the wakefields. The strong damping scheme may have a higher possibility of electrical breakdown. In this thesis an alternative design for the main accelerating structures of CLIC is studied and various aspects of this design are discussed. This design is known as a Damped and Detuned Structure (DDS) which relies on moderate damping and strong detuning of the higher order modes (HOMs). The broad idea of DDS is based upon the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design. The advantages of this design are: well damped wakefields, minimised rf breakdown probability and reduced size of the structure compared to the strong damping design. Procedures necessary to minimise the rf monopole fields and enhance the wakefield suppression are discussed. The rf as well as mechanical designs of a test structure are presented. This unique design forms the basis of this research and allows both the electrical breakdown and beam dynamics constraints to be simultaneously satisfied.
Vol.10 European Infrastructures for R&D
and Test of Superconducting
Cavities and Cryo-Modules
W. Weingarten, 2011, 46 pages
The need for a European facility to build and test superconducting RF accelerating structures and cryo-modules (SRF test facility) was extensively discussed during the preparation of EuCARD. It comprised a distributed network of equipment across Europe to be assessed and, if needed, completed by hardware. It also addressed the quest for a deeper basic understanding, a better control and optimisation of the manufacture of superconducting RF structures with the aim of a substantial improvement of the accelerating gradient, a reduction of its spread and a cost minimisation. However, consequent to EU budget restrictions, the proposal was not maintained. Instead, a more detailed analysis was requested by a sub-task inside the EuCARD Network AccNet - RFTech.
The main objective of this “SRF sub-task” consists in intensifying a collaborative effort between European accelerator labs. The aim focused on planning and later identifying for European accelerator users a multi-purpose state-of-the-art network of equipment for R&D and testing of SRF cavities and cryo-modules. The duration of this sub-task was agreed for two years, after which the results were to be presented to the funding agencies. This shall be achieved by this report.
This report is inevitably biased by the author’s opinion and preconceptions although a balanced assessment was aimed at. It summarizes the discussions held with individuals and during specific workshops or conferences organized in 2009 - 2011 under the auspices of RFTech and other EuCARD
annual meetings. It shall answer the following questions:
1. Is there a
need for a SRF test infrastructure, distributed across, and managed by,
European accelerator labs?
2. What research topics are important for the
future of SRF technology and what priorities should be attributed to
3. Is the capacity and available equipment sufficient to cope with the demands of emerging European projects?
Vol.11 Determination of Beam
Intensity and Position
in a Particle Accelerator
G. Kasprowicz, 2011, 130 pages
This volume concerns the conception, design, implementation, tests and deployment of
new position measurement system of particle bunch in the CERN PS circular accelerator.
The system is based on novel algorithms of particle position determination.
Development of the effective algorithm, which enables precise trajectory
tracking of individual particle bunches with sub-mm precision was the aim.
Moreover, using a similar, already verified algorithm, a new absolute beam
intensity measurement system was developed as well. These two measurement
systems are complementary and for the first time give the user full information
about the beam position and intensity in the accelerator.
The scope of this
volume includes measurement system conception, hardware design and development,
algorithm development and tests
Vol.12 Materials and surface
aspects in the development of SRF niobium cavities
Claire Antoine, 2011, 130 pages
monograph describes the main phenomena related to surface and material
properties involved in SRF technology. Each chapter begins with basic
observations, followed by some discussion based on experimental results
obtained with advanced material/surface studies techniques. The purpose
of these discussions is to familiarize the reader from the accelerator
community the possibility of these techniques, to draw attention to some
remarkable results, but also give some hints about the limitations of
brief introduction describing the philosophy of Niobium cavity
fabrication and preparation, there is a large chapter dedicated to
niobium metallurgy, mechanical properties, forming... The physical
origin and the influence of these parameters to the specifications are
described so that the reader should be able to knowingly change the
specifications whenever his application requires it. Topics like large
grain cavities, damage, dislocations influence on superconducting
properties, etc. are discussed. The next chapter discusses surface
morphology in relation to surface treatments and its possible influence
on cavity performances. A large chapter is then dedicated to sub-surface
contamination, mainly hydrogen and oxygen, at the metal-oxide interface.
The role of this interface in superconducting properties, in particular
its modification upon baking is discussed.
conclusion, a prospective chapter is dedicated to after-the-niobium
superconductors, in particular the multilayers structures proposed by
useful information is gathered in appendixes: main issues concerning
particle contamination and field emission, main features and description
of surface treatments, and information on niobium machining and
hydroforming. A glossary and more than 220 references entries complete
Vol.13 Beam Dynamics Studies
of the ISOLDE Post-Accelerator
for the High Intensity
and Energy Upgrade
M.A. Fraser, 2012, 318 pages
The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE
(On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly
increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided
to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such
as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics.
The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses
on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator
with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated
copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient
close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased
from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in
energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer
reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available at ISOLDE.
In this thesis the beam dynamics of the superconducting linac is studied with a focus
on identifying and mitigating the sources of beam emittance dilution.
the suppression of a parametric resonance, compensation of the beam-steering effect intrinsic
to quarter-wave cavities and a study of the energy change in the cavities well below
their geometric velocity using second-order transit-time factors. The studies lead to the
specification and tolerances for the linac components. An extensive investigation of REX
was also carried out involving rf and beam measurements that facilitated the benchmarking
of the beam dynamics codes that were used to design the matching sections and ensure
the compatibility of the upgrade. In addition, a solid-state diagnostics system was developed
as a tool to aid the quick and eventually automated tuning of the large number of
cavities that will accompany the upgrade.
Vol.14 Beam Dynamics Studies
of the ISOLDE Post-Accelerator
for the High Intensity
and Energy Upgrade
Michal Dziewiecki, 2012, 115 pages
Multipixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) are
recently gaining popularity in high energy physics experiments as an
attractive replacement for photomultiplier
tubes, which have been extensively used for many years as a part of
Their low price, small dimensions and another
features facilitating their use (like
mechanical shock resistance, magnetic field immunity or moderate supply
make the MAPDs a good choice for commercial use as well, what is
reflected in growing
number of producers as well as MAPD models available on the market.
This dissertation presents Author’s experience
with MAPD measurements and
modelling, gained during his work on the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka)
neutrino experiment, carried out by an international collaboration in
First, operation principle of the MAPD,
definitions of various parameters and
measurement methods are discussed. Then, a device for large-scale MAPD
and related data processing methods are described. Finally, the Author
presents an attempt of analysis and interpretation of the results.
Vol.15 Investigations of the Surface Resistance of
Tobias Junginger, 2012, 135 pages
In particle accelerators superconducting RF cavities are widely used
to achieve high accelerating gradients and low losses. Power consumption is
to the surface resistance RS which depends on a number of external
including frequency, temperature, magnetic and electric field.
Presently, there is
no widely accepted model describing the increase of Rs with applied
In the frame of this project the 400MHz Quadrupole Resonator has been
to 800 and 1200MHz to study surface resistance and intrinsic critical RF
magnetic field of superconducting samples over a wide parameter range,
it as a world-wide unique test facility for superconducting materials.
Different samples were studied and it was shown that RS is mainly caused
by the RF electric field in the case of strongly oxidized surfaces. This
explained by interface tunnel exchange of electrons between the
and localized states in adjacent oxides. For well prepared surfaces,
majority of the dissipation is caused by the magnetic field and RS
field and temperature dependent parts.
These different loss mechanisms were correlated to surface topography of
samples and distribution of oxides by using ultrasonic force microscopy
Vol.16 Beam Position
Diagnostics with Higher Order Modes in Third Harmonic Superconducting
Pei Zhang, 2013, 242 pages
Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant
fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an
accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wake-
eld. This wakeeld has the potential to dilute the beam qual-
ity and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability.
It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well
suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In
addition, the e
ect of the transverse wakeeld can be reduced
by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their
strength depending on the transverse o
set of the excitation
beam. For suitably small o
sets the dominant components of
the transverse wakeeld are dipole modes, with a linear depen-
dence on the transverse o
set of the excitation bunch. This
fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to
be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from
the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM),
but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation
At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA)
and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakeelds
in 3.9 GHz cavities are signicantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz
cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse e
of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis
of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam po-
sition diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect
that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam
diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cav-
ities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more
Vol.17 Advances in Conformal Radiotherapy
Anna Wysocka-Rabin, 2013, 158 pages
This monograph provides an overview of radiotherapy and treatment planning, and establishes the important role of Monte Carlo codes in designing new
devices and techniques in this field. The booklet describes in detail how specific Monte Carlo codes
can be used to study significant problems in radiotherapy.
Each of the first three chapters focuses on an interesting and distinctive example of the way a radiotherapeutic concept may become a standard practice in the field.
Multiple studies are featured in the booklet, including studies at the
German National Cancer Institute, Polish National Centre for Nuclear
Vol.18 RF Phase Reference Distribution System for TESLA Technology Based Projects
Krzysztof Czuba, 2013, 137 pages
Amongst the most advanced of currently developed accelerators are projects based on the TESLA technology. These projects require synchronization of many RF
devices with accuracy reaching femtosecond levels over kilometre distances. Design of a phase reference distribution system fulfilling such requirements is a challenging scientific task.
There are many interdisciplinary problems which must be solved during the system design.
This issue is devoted to the conceptual analysis, design and realization of a complete phase reference distribution system for the FLASH accelerator. The most important design issues are
considered. Important distribution system architectures are described with their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of characterization of signal phase instabilities in distribution system
components are presented. A general, system-level design method of the distribution system is proposed. The designed FLASH distribution system is divided into three subsystems: the Master
Oscillator System, coaxial cable links and the fiber-optic link with active phase stabilization. The design, realization and tests of these subsystems are described
Further volumes will be added to
this list during the lifetime of the EuCARD project
Ordering a copy
The booklets are free of charge. To request a booklet, please complete the online order form.
The series is under management of WP2 of EuCARD – Dissemination, Communication and Outreach (DCO).
The series Editor and Co-Editor are R. S. Romaniuk and J-P. Koutchouk.
The series publisher is
Publishing Office of Warsaw University of Technology.
The Editors inform SC and GB of EuCARD about the series development.
Information for Authors
Authors active in the relevant research fields, from EuCARD and related projects, are encouraged to submit the results of their work to the
The work should be sent in print ready form, requiring no
additional editing or proofreading. Text should be
- in pdf format
- all margins 2.5 cm
- font preferably Times New Roman or other similar 12 points
- number of
pages should be between 40-150
The monographs are reviewed and immediately printed. Printing, in a confined number of copies, is funded from the EuCARD resources.
Booklets will be printed in B5 page format
common cover with EuCARD logo and window filled with illustration concerning the
subject of the booklet (chosen by the author).
subject range will cover all EuCARD activities and related fields